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Chapter 4: Planning

  1. Planning & Programming Study
    1. A Program Planning Study (PPS) is a document which describes and systematically justifies the need for improved or expanded facilities; evaluates alternative solutions; and prescribes a strategy for implementing a recommended solution in the context of each campus' academic (master) plan and Physical Development Plan. It should clearly demonstrate how the recommended solution will address both qualitative and quantitative deficiencies identified for a particular program.
    2. The PPS serves four very important functions:
      1. It provides a guide for further planning, design, and development;
      2. It provides the foundation for project objectives, scope, and budget, as a basis for agreements between the Campus, System Administration, Board of Curators (BOC) and external agencies, including the Coordinating Board for Higher Education, State Legislature, and the Governor's Office;
      3. It permits objective evaluation of the relative needs for capital investment and facilitates prioritization of projects as a part of the capital budgeting process;
      4. As part of the University's capital budgeting process, it provides supporting material for the condensed information required for the proposed project in the University's "immediate" capital budget cycle.
    3. A PPS should be completed for any project included on the Campus Capital Plan, prior to seeking Project Approval from the BOC, or for any project seeking State funding.
    4. A PPS shall include the following:
      1. Academic Program and Space Allocation Plan - Provide background information on the campus' academic plan and Physical Development Plan as it relates to a specific academic program(s). This information, drawn from historical perspectives as well as recent experience and future trends, should clearly describe the program requirements.
          (1) To facilitate a comparative analysis of each project and to allow for the evaluation of current capacity and projected costs, information provided in this section should include the following detail:
          (a) Summarize the program's current mission statement and its relationship to the academic plan. Indicate projected growth in overall credit hour enrollment of the particular program, as well as all teaching loads in support of other programs. Explain the assumptions which support the projections used. These may relate to anticipated demand for skills, local or national job market, age or type of population being served, etc. Projections should include 5, 10, and 15 year horizons.
          (b) Compile information related to current space assignments from the University's Facilities Inventory. Show current assignments by type of space and location. Point out any qualitative issues related to existing assignments that support the need for the proposed project. 
          (c) Determine space needs based on current and projected enrollment and staffing levels using campus space guidelines or nationally recognized standards (e.g. WICHE, University of Minnesota, Colorado Commission of Higher Education, etc.).
          (d) Provide a narrative explaining parameters used in analyses relative to day vs. night usage, credit hour to contact hour conversions, faculty participation in research, student office policies, etc. Show calculations used to determine space needs.
      2. Project Definition - Provide a comprehensive evaluation of alternate solutions to the needs identified in the previous section. This analysis should include the short and long-range implications to both the program and the Physical Development Plan, as well as operational and life cycle costs.
      3. Project Justification -Describe the benefits of the proposed project as it relates to improving the quality, availability, and support of the academic program(s) affected. Include as much of the following information as appropriate:
          (1) Indicate how this project meets the need for space as documented above. Provide a detailed summary of special facilities, the programs/activities that will occur in the space including any proposed non-university funded activities and facilities available for campus-wide use.
          (2) Outline the capacity of the facility in terms of program needs over time. Identify requirements for future expansion and describe the flexibility built into the proposed facility to accommodate future program changes.
          (3) Describe how the new or renovated facility impacts other programs. Identify programs that will occupy the vacated space or programs that will be temporarily assigned to some of the new or renovated space until the primary program grows into the space.
          (4) Illustrate cost/benefit analysis of the project related to energy conservation, operational costs, utility costs, etc.
          (5) Describe the consequences to the academic, research, or service mission of the program if the project is not accomplished according to the proposed schedule. Describe default plans, if any.
      4. Project Description - Provide a narrative which describes the site, building size, and any special features which will assist in supporting the project. Include as much of the following information as appropriate:
          (1) Describe and illustrate the selected site and explain the benefits and relationship to the campus Physical Development Plan. Point out any special site development goals that will be accomplished.
          (2) Provide a summary of the existing and proposed space programs for the total project (i.e. classroom, laboratories, offices, etc.). Indicate any changes in space type or assignments of existing facilities. Identify the planned efficiency ratio of the facility such as net assignable square feet to gross square feet.
          (3) Describe the type of construction anticipated and any special construction requirements of the facility.
      5. Project Costs and Schedule - Provide a summary of cost projections and the assumptions they are based on. Identify costs for architectural and engineering requirements by major building component (i.e. structural shell, electrical, HVAC, plumbing, etc.). Include estimated costs for furniture, fixtures, movable equipment, landscaping, and project management/administration, as part of the total project budget.
      6. Funding Strategy - Describe anticipated sources of funding including the suggested minimum non-state funding of 20%. Indicate anticipated strategy and schedule for acquiring non-state funds.
      7. Operating Expenses - Identify the project costs associated with opening new buildings and the impact on the annual operating budget. Demonstrate the method of arriving at these costs and show the base data and formulas used.
      8. Supporting Documents - Include either within the report or as an appendix the following documents:
          (1) Site plan showing project location.
          (2) Physical Development Plan showing the relationship of the proposed project to the existing fabric of the campus.
          (3) Latest accreditation report or related correspondence.
          (4) The architectural program for the proposed project, if completed. Provide space and functional relationship diagrams of new, renovated, and existing facilities as proposed.
  2. Master Planning
    1. Master planning is the mechanism used to plan the future physical development of a campus. The plan should translate campus strategic plan, and programmatic goals and objectives into necessary physical development. Master plans can vary greatly as to cost, scope, time frame, and physical area. A master plan should include narrative, site plans, and/or models that illustrate how the campus will look in the future.
    2. Responsibilities: The impetus, support, and promotion of successful master planning activity can only come from the administrative level of the campus. The campus should establish a master plan committee to both lead the process and include the voice of key campus constituents. The campus is encouraged to enlist the services of nationally recognized master planning experts. The campus staff will manage the process. The campus is encouraged to include a representative of UM Facilities Planning & Development to provide system input during the planning process, and to assure the master plan is consistent with University requirements. The planning staff should have a direct tie to the decision-making level of the institution, providing support and sponsorship for the plan.
    3. Campus Planning Principles and Objectives: The campus will establish the principles and objectives for the physical environment of the campus, evaluating existing resources, and identifying campuses various programmatic goals and needs.
    4. Planning Consultant: The planning consultant will work with the campus planning committee to link institutional goals and principles to existing conditions and future physical development. The team will explore alternatives for land use, the placement of buildings, space functions, circulation patterns, open spaces, and options for enhancing or protecting the character of the campus. Several iterations of review and participation from key campus constituents are done to assure the plan’s relevance to the University community. After approval by Campus Administration, the planning consultants will prepare recommendations and guidelines for immediate and long-range development illustrating these conceptually in written and graphic form.
    5. Campus Review and Approval: The master plan must be responsive to the changing and dynamic nature of the institution. The plan must undergo periodic review and updating. The campus can accomplish the review process in two ways. The campus can simply repeat this set of steps at regular intervals, normally several years apart. However, the plan can become out of date if the interval is too long. Alternately, the campus can revisit the plan annually and adapt it in small increments. The campus can hire the master planning consultant on a retainer basis to review current projects, to hold annual plan review meetings, and confer and advise campus leaders regularly. Such an approach allows a plan to grow and change, and it provides an effective means to ensure the plan’s influence on individual facility projects.
    6. Curator Approval: Curator review and approval is required whether there are significant changes to the campus master plan or every 3 years, refer to CRR 70.060.
    7. University Master Plan Best Practices
      1. The Master Plan should be founded upon and linked to the Campus Strategic Plan. The strategic plan should consider and respond to the issues of growth, research and enrollment capacity, space use, renewal of existing assets, property acquisitions, availability of capital, etc. that involve campus physical assets.
      2. The process should be inclusive of internal stakeholders, with intentional opportunities for Student, Faculty, and Staff input. Open Houses, Town Meetings, and Web Sites are appropriate tools for this input.
      3. The process should be inclusive of external stakeholders, including civic leaders, neighbors, strategic partners, and other public entities. Like the internal process, Open Houses, Town Meetings, and Web Sites are appropriate tools for this input.
      4. The process should engage the campus Executive management (Chancellor and Vice-Chancellors) early in the process and at critical stages along the way to ensure institutional support.
      5. The plan recommendations should be flexible, with a process defined in the plan for next steps and for periodic updates. The plan should avoid highly prescriptive parameters.
      6. The plan should define appropriate land uses, including edge conditions and gateways to adjacent property owners. The plan should identify real estate acquisition zones.
      7. The plan should address pedestrian and vehicular circulation. An analysis of traffic and parking requirements should be made as a part of the plan.
      8. The plan should evaluate opportunities to reduce pedestrian/vehicular conflicts though pedestrian only corridors, perimeter, parking structures, and mass transit interfaces.
      9. The plan should discuss the overall character of the campus. Some recognition of significant buildings and prevalent architectural style if appropriate. The relative density of the campus should also be described.
      10. The plan should make recommendations for the character of landscape and open spaces, in conjunction with recommendations for future building sites.
      11. The plan should address utility infrastructure with respect to both capacity and distribution. The plan should reflect existing and proposed utility corridors. The plan should address other initiatives such as the President’s Climate Commitment where applicable.
      12. The plan should reflect a conceptual phasing cost and revenue scenario, include cost estimates of near term real estate acquisitions, and synchronize with the capital plan.
      13. The master plan should be recorded on a number of levels: a simplified and brief version for public distribution and a detailed technical support document for Campus Facilities use.
      14. The master plan graphics should be relatively simple (maps, graphic plans). Aerial sketches or vignettes can be used to describe the character of the master plan concepts, without describing specific designs.
      15. The graphics should support different delivery methods: traditional boards, power point, and web based.
    8. Individual Facility Project Development
      1. Definition: The facility development process plans individual buildings and provides the mechanism for adapting the principles of the master plan to a single facility project. The facility development process builds on the master plan. The following process is a mechanism for achieving this linkage between the campus master plan and individual building projects.
      2. Facility Project Conception: The campus originates the project. The initial concept phase should include several considerations such as overall program priority, potential funding sources, and the relationship of the project to the campus master plan. Campus approval of the initial project concept allows the project to proceed into a more detailed program development and analysis effort. If the campus requires the expertise of an architect/engineer, it should follow the qualifications based selection process found in chapter 6 of this document.
      3. Program Development and Analysis: The preparation and analysis of the detailed Program Planning Study will provide the foundation for the facility need. The requirements for a Program Planning Study are found in the University of Missouri Capital Planning Guidelines maintain by UM Facilities Planning & Development.
      4. Project Approval: The Campus approves the program and the financing plan. The campus can include the project in the institution’s State Capital Budget Request or they can pursue other financing.
      5. Design Initiation: Once Funding is in place, a project proceeds to design/construction as described elsewhere in this manual.